Livadia is the state museum, which in former times was the summer residence of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II. This is one of the most visited museums in Ukraine. Worldwide, the palace became famous after the leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition stayed Crimean conference. It was at Livadia was defined in international politics for the next 50 years after the war.
Livadia Palace Museum – the main attraction in Yalta, one of the best monuments of architectural and landscape art in the world.
Livadia has long been inhabited. At the end of the XVIII century, Russian Emperor shat Colonel Lambros Katsionisa, who was guarding the southern Crimean coast, the estate near Yalta. The colonel, who was by nationality a Greek, named his estate “Livadia” in honor of his native Greek province.
In 1834 the manor was bought by Polish Count Potocki. Since that time, and begins the story of Livadia Palace. In the area of 40 acres of the palace and builds a graph breaks one of the best parks in the Southern coast of Crimea. In early 1860 the estate became the property of the wife of Alexander II, Empress Maria Alexandrovna.
Russian tsars were very fond of this estate with its benign climate and extraordinary beauty. This is where the funeral took place of Emperor Alexander III (1894). Here the oath of allegiance to the Russian throne of the last emperor of Russia – Nicholas II. In this estate should receive the Holy Orthodox bride Emperor – Princess Alice of Hesse, which he called the Alexandra Feodorovna.
From the moment the palace was erected, he was subjected to constant alterations. Even so, he did not meet all the aspirations of the imperial family. It was decided to completely reconstruct the palace. This took up a talented architect Nikolai Krasnov. He was able to one and a half years to build one of the most beautiful buildings – the world-famous Great White Palace. In our time it attends to 750 thousand tourists a year.
State treasury construction of the palace at a cost of 4 million imperial rubles. The workers worked for days and nights. But the revolution did not allow the tsarist imperial family has a rest in his new summer residence. The family visited her a few times. The Emperor wrote that the only place he could relax from state affairs. After the abdication of the king revealed the desire to move here permanently.
But there was no way we would like. In 1925 the palace was called the first peasant sanatorium named after Stalin. Here, both rested and treated a large number of people.
The palace has survived during the Great Patriotic War. In February 1945 Yalta conference was held here. It was attended by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the head of the USSR, Stalin. The main decisions are taken at this conference: the decision to establish the UN plan for the defeat of Nazi Germany, the question of the postwar world order. The Palace at this time became the residence of the U.S. president.
Since 1945, the White Palace is for a time the state dacha. Then there was called union sanatorium. It starts with the development of this corner as the all-union health resorts. In 1977 were built liftopodemniki for delivery and leisure guests a resort on the beach to the sea.
The status of a separate exhibition complex sanatorium “Livadia” White Palace was in 1974. Since that time, the history of the Palace Museum. The first exhibition devoted to the Yalta Conference. She always has attracted interest from all visitors. In November 1993, the Ministry of Culture of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea assigns the status of the State Palace Museum.
A new milestone in the history of the White Palace was the choice of his place for meetings and negotiations the Heads of State and influential politicians. Has recently been meeting the Council of Heads of CIS and Baltic-Black Sea Cooperation “, International Symposium” Yalta: 1945 – 2000. “And so forth. In September 2001 the Livadia Palace marks 90 years since the building. Noting the great contribution to the preparation and conduct of large international events, museum staff have been awarded the diploma of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine.
But natural disasters presented with unpleasant surprises this wonderful nature reserve. Due to the heavy rains came landslides, so were always carried out coast protection works.
In the palace complex, except for the white palace, the suite includes (Page Corps), the Palace Minister of the Court Baron Fredericks, which were built at the same time as the palace, the palace church of the Exaltation of the Cross, Honest (1872) and the Italian courtyard.
Among the other palaces in Livadia distinguished by the fact that his artistic decoration and the overall layout combines two styles – historicism and Art Nouveau. This is an excellent example of how the architect combines parts of different styles at its discretion.
For example, from the Italian Renaissance were taken from the Great White Palace, patio, design of the main entrance. But it was necessary to take into account the fact that it is – a country house, which requires modern comfort. This could be solved by resorting to the elements of Art Nouveau.
The eastern facade of the palace seems somewhat skewed. His expressive form, as if repeating the mountainous terrain, giving it vitality and dynamism. But the facade of the palace, as well as its interior decoration is not overloaded with decorative details. Nikolai Krasnov has a great sense of proportion and artistic tact. The strict proportions of arches and columns, second-floor windows, tracks which seemed to run to the fountain in the center of the yard, evergreen plants give a sense of harmony and peace.
Most of this was played and the fact that in the outer lining of the palace was used smoothly processed Inkerman limestone light fawn color. This gave the construction of lightness and grace and allocated it to the green background of the old park and blue sky. When used in decorating the carved marble (griffins, dolphins, flowers and fruit, medallions). Livadia Palace was built for the imperial family, so the arches are provided with monogrammed names of members of their family. Above the main entrance the National Emblem of the Romanovs.